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          Calculator works only on JavaScript enabled browsers
          Units: SI+ SI-






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          Physical Constants




          Astronomical Constants


          Planetary Data






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          Physical Constants




          Astronomical Constants


          Planetary Data

          The Units switch above does not change the units of your calculation! It only specifies the units of the constants buttons for future entries!

          NAME SYMBOL NUMBER CGS UNITS
          Velocity of light c 2.998 x 1010 cm s-1
          Planck constant h 6.626 x 10-27 erg s
          Gravitational constant G 6.67 x 10-8 cm3 g-1 s-2
          Electron charge e 4.803 x 10-10 esu
          Mass of electron m_e 9.1096 x 10-28 g
          Mass of proton m_p 1.6724 x 10-24 g
          Mass of neutron m_n 1.6747 x 10-24 g
          Mass of hydrogen m_H 1.6733 x 10-24 g
          Atomic mass unit amu 1.661 x 10-24 g
          Avagadro's number N_A 6.0222 x 1023
          Boltzmann constant k 1.38 x 10-16 erg K-1
          Electron volt ev 1.602 x 10-12 erg
          Rad'n density constant a 7.5646 x 10-15 erg cm-3 K-4
          Stefan-Boltzmann const sigma 5.67 x 10-5 erg cm-2 K-4 s-1
          Fine structure constant \alpha 7.29735308 x 10-3
          Rydberg constant R 2.17992 x 10-11 erg
          Year yr 3.156 x 107 s
          Astronomical unit AU 1.496 x 1013 cm
          Parsec pc 3.086 x 1018 cm
          Light year ly 9.463 x 1017 cm
          Solar mass M_sun 1.99 x 1033 g
          Solar radius R_sun 6.96 x 1010 cm
          Solar Luminosity L_sun 3.9 x 1033 erg s-1
          Solar Temperature T_sun 5780 K

          In the calculator above, the Period has been converted to seconds and the Semi-Major Axis has been changed to cm.

          Name Mass (g) Radius (cm) Period (yr) Semi-Major (AU) Eccentricity
          Mercury 3.303 x 1026 2.439 x 108 2.4085 x 10-1 3.87096 x 10-1 0.205622
          Venus 4.87 x 1027 6.05 x 108 6.1521 x 10-1 7.23342 x 10-1 0.006783
          Earth 5.976 x 1027 6.378 x 108 1.00004 x 100 9.99987 x 10-1 0.016684
          Mars 6.418 x 1026 3.397 x 108 1.88089 x 100 1.523705 x 100 0.093404
          Jupiter 1.899 x 1030 7.14 x 109 1.18622 x 101 5.204529 x 100 0.047826
          Saturn 5.686 x 1029 6 x 109 2.94577 x 101 9.575133 x 100 0.052754
          Uranus 8.66 x 1028 2.615 x 109 8.40139 x 101 1.930375 x 101 0.050363
          Neptune 1.03 x 1029 2.43 x 109 1.64793 x 102 3.020652 x 101 0.004014
          Pluto 1 x 1025 1.2 x 108 2.47686 x 102 3.991136 x 101 0.256695

          Note: This calculator was written and tested on a Unix computer. If it looks bad to you, try making your window wider. The calculator looks especially bad on Macs, unfortunately...

          Most of the JavaScript code for this calculator came (with permission) from the by Rolf Howarth. (rolf@insect.demon.co.uk)

          The code for the comment field at the top of the page came from Bruce Busby (bbusby@umich.edu)

          Last updated: 2/18/2018